** Yad Vashem: (English name: The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority), Israel's national Holocaust memorial. The name Yad Vashem comes from a verse in the biblical book of Isaiah that refers to an everlasting memorial. Located on Jerusalem's Har HaZikaron (Remembrance Mountain) near the Mt. Herzl complex, Yad Vashem was officially established by Israel's parliament in 1953 in accordance with the Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Law. The authority was charged with commemorating the six million Jews who were murdered by the Nazis and Nazi collaborators; the Jewish communities of Europe that were destroyed; the heroism of the soldiers, underground fighters, Partisans, and prisoners of the Ghettos; and the Righteous Among the Nations. The law also made the authority responsible to establish memorial projects; gather, research, and publish educational materials about the Holocaust and its lessons; award honorary Israeli citizenship to the victims; and represent Israel internationally with regards to Holocaust commemoration.
The Hall of Names serves as a register of the names of millions of Jews who were killed, while the Children's Memorial commemorates the one and a half million children who died during the Holocaust. The latter consists of a dark building lit by five memorial candles that are multiplied exponentially with the use of mirrors. These lights represent the children whose names are continually read aloud in the background.
There are also many outdoor sites at the Yad Vashem facility. The Garden of the Righteous honors those non-Jews, officially designated by Yad Vashem as "Righteous among the Nations," who risked their lives to rescue Jews during the Holocaust. The awardees are entitled to plant trees along the garden's Avenue of the Righteous among the Nations.